Journal Articles

Dear Authors!

Journal of African Problems and Solutions (JAPS) is an open-access quarterly-annual journal published by Research Excellence Institute (REI). Journal of African Problems and Solutions (JAPS) invites scholars and researchers to submit their manuscripts on political, economic, social, cultural/religious, environmental, legal, development problems - among others, on the African continent. The journal is interested in publishing pertinent African problems, and researchers are encouraged to explain the nature of the African problem(s), the seriousness of the African problem(s) and the suggested practical solutions to the identified African problem.

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Who We Are

Journal of African Problems and Solutions (JAPS) is open access, peer-reviewed, and refereed journal published by Research Excellence Institute, South Africa. Journal of African Problems and Solutions (JAPS) aims at identifying, compiling and disseminating novel issues on good governance, sustainable development, and poverty eradication. The objective of JAPS is to become a leading African Journal that disseminates research on African problems and providing practical solutions to pertinent African problems.

We help academicians and practitioners alike in compiling and disseminating researches on identified African problems and suggested practical solutions on the African continent and beyond.

Tentative Publication Date:

The Research Excellence Institute intends to publish online the selected Research papers twice a year.

Important Notes for Authors (Full Paper Submission)  

Paper Formatting Guidelines Important Papers that do not follow the guidelines as specified below may be returned to authors for reformatting. We also request that you proofread your paper carefully to ensure that it is free of technical errors in usage, punctuation, etc. Some authors may wish to consider having their papers checked for consistency of English language usage before submission. 

Paper size:  A4


Line spacing:  Single spacing

Margins:   Top – 2.54cm    Bottom – 2.54cm    Left – 2.54cm    Right – 2.54cm 

Please do not include headers/ footers or number the pages.  

Word Limit:  Abstract – 300. Words Body of Paper (EXCLUDING references) – 5000 to 6000 Words 

Please use the format below for the formatting of the entire paper.

FULL PAPER TITLE [TIMES NEW ROMAN 16 PT, UPPER CASE, BOLD, CENTRED] First name, Surname1 and First name Surname 2 


An abstract of no more than 300 words should be provided. It should be in running prose with no sub-headings.


The section heading is applied to the header of the Abstract, Introduction, Literature Review, Methods, Findings, Conclusion, and References. 

Sub Heading 1st Level [TIMES NEW ROMAN 12 pt, Title Case, Bold, Italic, Flush Left] Sub heading 2nd level [Arial 12 pt, Sentence case, Bold, Italic, Flush left]

Text [Normal – TIMES NEW ROMAN 12 pt, Justify]  


References should be used in the text and listed alphabetically by author at the end of the text using the following examples (APA format): 

Book with Single Author:

Gore, A. (2006). An inconvenient truth: The planetary emergency of global warming and what we can do about it. Emmaus, PA: Rodale.

In-text reference: (Gore, 2006)

Book with Two Authors:

Michaels, P. J., & Balling, R. C., Jr. (2000). The satanic gases: Clearing the air about global warming. Washington, DC: Cato Institute.

In-text reference: (Michaels & Balling, 2000)

Book with Editor as Author:

Galley. K. E. (Ed.). (2004). Global climate change and wildlife in North America. Bethesda, MD: Wildlife Society.

In-text reference: (Galley, 2004)

Brochure or Pamphlet:

New York State Department of Health. (2002). After a sexual assault. [Brochure]. Albany, NY: Author.

In-text reference: (New York, 2002)

An Anonymous Book:

Environmental resource handbook. (2001). Millerton, NY: Grey House.

In-text reference: (Environmental Resource Handbook, 2001)

Articles in Reference Books (unsigned and signed):

Greenhouse effect. (2005). American heritage science dictionary. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Schneider, S. H. (2000). Greenhouse effect. World book encyclopedia (Millennium ed. Vol. 8, pp. 382-383). Chicago, IL: World Book.

In-text references: (Greenhouse effect, 2005)

(Schneider, 2000)

Magazine Articles:

Allen, L. (2004, August). Will Tuvalu disappear beneath the sea? Global warming threatens to swamp a small island nation. Smithsonian, 35(5), 44-52.

Begley, S., & Murr, A. (2007, July 2). Which of these is not causing global warming? A. Sport utility vehicles; B. Rice fields; C. Increased solar output. Newsweek, 150(2), 48-50.

In-text references: (Allen, 2004)

(Begley, 2007)

Newspaper Articles (unsigned and signed):

College officials agree to cut greenhouse gases. (2007, June 13). Albany Times Union, p. A4.

Landler, M. (2007, June 2). Bush’s Greenhouse Gas Plan Throws Europe Off Guard.

New York Times, p. A7.

In-text references: (“College Officials”, 2007)

(Landler, 2007)

Journal Article with Continuous Paging:

Miller-Rushing, A. J., Primack, R. B., Primack, D., & Mukunda, S. (2006). Photographs and herbarium specimens as tools to document phonological changes in response to global warming. American Journal of Botany, 93, 1667-1674.

In-text reference: (Miller-Rushing, Primack, Primack, & Mukunda, 2006)

Journal Article when each issue begins with p.1:

Bogdonoff, S., & Rubin, J. (2007). The regional greenhouse gas initiative: Taking action in Maine. Environment, 49(2), 9-16.

In-text reference: (Bogdonoff & Rubin, 2007)

Journal Article from a Library Subscription Service Database with a DOI (digital object identifier):

Mora, C., & Maya, M. F. (2006). Effect of the rate of temperature increase of the dynamic method on the heat tolerance of fishes. Journal of Thermal Biology, 31, 337-341. doi: 10.101b/jtherbio.2006.01.055

In-text reference: (Mora & Maya, 2006)


The United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2007, May 4). Climate Change. Retrieved From the Environmental Protection Agency website:

In-text reference: (United States Environmental, 2007)

Gelspan, R. (2007). The Heat Is Online. Lake Oswego, OR: Green House Network. Retrieved from The Heat Is Online website:

In-text reference: (Gelspan, 2007)


Thanks to our wonderful sponsors! We extend our sincere appreciation to our sponsors, without whom our season would not be possible. Their support, along with that of our members, helps make it possible to accomplish all that we do.

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